The Holy Books. Revealed Books Celestial
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيم
Praise be to God the Creator of the world, the One Who exists without beginning, without end, without location, without a "how" and Who does not depend on time. Nothing resembles Him in anyway and He hears and sees everything without organs. Whatever you imagine, God is different from that. May the elevation in degree and preservation of his community of what he fears for it, be granted to our master Muhammad Al-'Amin, the Honest One, who called for following Islam, the religion of truth, the religion of all the Prophets: of the First, Adam, to the last Muhammad.
As narrated by Imam Muslim in the famous Hadith known as Hadith Jibril, the Prophet, SallAllâhu `alayhi wa sallam, when asked by Angel Jibril to inform him about the belief, said al-Iman (the belief) is:
« أَنْ تُؤْمِنَ باللهِ وَمَلائِكَتِهِ وَكُتِبِهِ ورُسُلِهِ والْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وتُؤْمِنَ بالْقَدَرِ خَيْرِهِ وَشَرِّهِ »
('an tu'mina bi l-Lâhi wa malâ'ikatihi wa kutubihi wa ruçulihi wa l-yawmi l-'âkhiri wa tu'mina bi l-qadari khayrihi wa charrih)
which means: « To believe in Allāh, His Angels, His Revealed Books, His Messengers, the Day of Judgment, and to believe in destiny, both good and evil, (that is that both are decreed by Allāh). »
The Prophet said:
« الأَنْبِيَاءُ إِخْوَةٌ لِعَلاّتٍ دِينُهُم وَاحِد وَأُمَّهَاتُهُم شَتَّى »
(al ‘anbiyâ’u ‘ikhwatun li`allât dînuhum wâHid wa ‘ummahâtuhum chattâ)
which means: « The Prophets are like brothers of the same father but different mothers, their religion is the same and their laws differ. » [Narrated by Al-Bukhâriyy]. Prophet Muhammad made the comparison of the prophets as brothers of the same father because their religion is the same, their belief is unique, they have called for the religion of Islam but the laws of the prophets differ.
The Law includes the judgments which concern the practices, such as the zakat, the prayer and what is of the same kind.
The Revealed Books to some Prophets
It is obligatory to believe in all the Celestial Books (revealed books) that God revealed to some Prophets ; all the revealed books call to follow the religion of Islam which is the only true religion. The only book that was not falsified is the Qur'ân which is in the Arabic language. It is not permissible to translate the Qur’ân literally, word by word. However, we translate the meaning of the verses according to the interpretations of true Islamic scholars.
The most commonly known Revealed Books are four:
At-tawrah the authentic Torah revealed to prophet Mûsâ - Moses - `alayhi s-Salâm in hebrew.
Al-‘Injîl authentic revealed to prophet`Içâ - Jesus - `alayhi s-Salâm in Aramaic.
Az-Zabûr authentic revealed to prophet Dâwôud - David - `alayhi s-Salâm in Hebrew.
Al-Qur’ân revealed to prophet Muḥammad Salla l-Lâhou `alayhi wa sallam in Arabic.
The Qur'ân informs that tawrah, ‘Injîl and Zabûr have been falsified.
Allâh has preserved the Qur’ân from any kind of falsification. The Qur'ân is in the Arabic language and that it is not permissible to translate word by word as many people do nowadays. We translate the meaning of the verses if we received it through oral transmission as the knowledge of the Religion is acquired through oral transmission. The Prophet Muḥammad Salla l-Lâhu `alayhi wa sallam said :
« إنما العلم بالتعلم »
What means: « certainly the knowledge of the religion is acquired through oral transmission. »
So if we want to know the interpretation of the Qur’ân, we must ask people who have the knowledge and who are trustworthy. It is not enough to just read books that are supposedly translations of the Qur’ân as many of them contain mistakes as the authors translated them literally word by word without having received the meaning of the verses through oral transmission from trustworthy people.
Ibnu Hibbân reported in his ṣaḥīḥ, as well as Hâfidh ibnu `Asâkir and al QurTubiyy in his tafsîr from Abu dharr al Ghifâriyy that he questioned the Prophet Muḥammad Salla lLahu `alayhi wa sallam: how many books Allâh revealed? Prophet Muḥammad said:
« مائة كتاب، وأربعة كتب، أنزل على شيث خمسون صحيفة، وأنزل على أخنوخ (إدريس) ثلاثون صحيفة، وأنزل على إبراهيم عشر صحائف، وأنزل على موسى قبل التوراة عشر صحائف، وأنزل التوراة والإنجيل والزبور والفرقان »
which means: « One hundred and four books, it was descended on Chîth fifty, on Idrîs thirty, on Ibrahim ten, on Mûsa (Moses) before the Torah ten and then were descended the Torah, the Injîl, the Psalms (Azzabur) and al-Furqân (al-Qur'ân). »