Eid Al-Fiṭr 2021 1442 and Zakat of Fiṭr
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيم
Praise be to God the Creator of the world, the One Who exists without beginning, without end, without location, without a "how" and Who does not depend on time. Nothing resembles Him in anyway and He hears and sees everything without organs. Whatever you imagine, God is different from that. May the elevation in degree and preservation of his community of what he fears for it, be granted to our master Muḥammad Al-'Amin, the Honest One, who called for following Islam, the religion of truth, the religion of all the Prophets: of the first, Adam, to the last Muḥammad.
Eid Al-Fiṭr Al-Mubârak On the first day of Shawwâl
The lunar calendar has 12 months. Eid Al-Fiṭr is celebrated after completing the 9th month, which is called the month of Ramaḍān, i.e. it is celebrated on the first day of the 10th month, which is called the month of Shawwâl.
`Îd Eid l-Fiṭr, 1 chawwal 1442H
'Îd, Eid Mubarak to all Muslims. May Allāh agree your fasting and your acts of worship. Eid mubarak wa kullu `am wa antum bikhair. May God bring back to you this opportunity in goodness and piety.
The beginning of a new month is determined by sighting the new crescent in compliance with the Hadîth of the Prophet Salla lLâhu `alayhi wa sallam. The Prophet ṣalla lLâhu `alayhi wa sallam informed us that the lunar month is either 29 days or 30 days. One looks for the new crescent after the sun has set on the 29th day, if one sees it, then the next day is the first of the next month. However, if due to cloud one does not see it, then one completes 30 days and the next day is “automatically” deemed to be the first.
There are many recommended matters (sunnahs) that one is encouraged to observe on this day. Amongst them is to have a bath. The time of this ghusl starts at the middle of the night and it ends by the sunset and it is better to take this ghusl after Fajr, after the appearance of the dawn.
The Zakat of Fiṭr
Also note that it is obligatory upon individuals who fulfil certain conditions to pay Zakāt of Fiṭr.
Zakat of Fiṭr is an obligation on every Muslim who is alive at the end of Ramadan and the beginning of Shawwâl. In other terms if someone is alive when the sun sets on the last day of Ramaḍān, that is until after the sun sets, then the zakah of Fiṭr is due on this person.
Every free Muslim has to pay the zakat of Fiṭr for himself and in addition one also has to pay the zakah of Fiṭr on behalf of the people whom one is religiously obligated to support. For example, one’s wife, poor father, poor mother, one’s pre-pubescent child that does not have money etc.
Note: if the parent is solvent, then his son or daughter does not have to pay zakah of Fiṭr on behalf of the parent. Likewise if the child becomes pubescent, then it is not an obligation upon the parent to pay the zakah of Fiṭr on behalf of the child. However, one can pay zakah of Fiṭr on behalf of another person whom he is not obligated to support, if that other person authorises him to do that. Hence, if the pubescent child authorises his father to pay the zakah of Fiṭr on his behalf, then the father can pay it on behalf of the child. Also note that even if the wife is solvent or rich, he has to pay zakah of Fiṭr on her behalf.
For such a person to be obligated to pay the zakah of Fiṭr, he needs to own what exceeds his debts, even if those debts are not due yet, also he needs to have what exceeds what he needs for clothing for himself and those whom he is obligated to support, food for himself and those whom he is obligated to support.
It is permissible to pay the zakah of Fiṭr during the month of Ramaḍān, even at the first night of Ramaḍān. However, it is better to pay the zakah of Fiṭr on the day of `Eid and before the prayer of `Eid. Because when one pays it before the prayer, then when the poor people get it, they feel relaxed during that day that they have enough to eat during the day of `Eid. It is Haram to delay paying it until after the sunset of the `Eid day. If you pay it before the sun sets, then it is ok, if you delay paying it until after the sunset, then it is Haram, i.e. if this is done without a religious excuse.
The due Zakah for each is a (ṣā`) of the most common staple food of that country.
Hence, the zakah of Fiṭr is one ṣā`, which is 4 mudds; one mudd is the fill of two cupped hands. So one needs to pay 4 of them on behalf of each person, one sa` of the common staple crops in the area. In many countries, the staple crop is wheat. In some countries it is rice and in some countries it is corn, and in some areas it is none of them, rather something else.
What has been mentioned above is in compliance with the madh-hab of Imam Ash-Shafi`iyy. Thus note that there are differences in opinion amongst the scholars about how much is "paid" as the zakah of Fiṭr.
According to the Hanafiyy School of Jurisprudence, zakât is three moudd of wheat or six mudd of dates or raisins or barley. According to the madh-hab Hanafiyy it is valid to pay the counter value of wheat moudd according to their value in the country. The three moudd of wheat represents about 2145 grams of wheat .
الحمد لله رب العالمين