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The month of Ramadan, which is the best of the year, has the best night of the year: Al-Qadr night. It's the best of the year, as the day of `Arafah is the best of the year. It is better than 1000 months, according to verse 3 of Sourat al-Qadr. The night of Al-Qadr - night of the Value - has a great merit and can be any night of Ramadan.
`Āchûrâ' is the 10th day of Muḥarram. Fasting the day of `Āchûrâ' has been unanimously agreed upon by scholars of Islam to be a sunnah deed.
The Aḍ-ḥā `Id is one of the great days of the year on which the pilgrim fulfils the obligations of Hajj. It is also recommended for the pilgrim to offer a sacrifice on that day, with the intention to gain rewards from Allâh, the Exalted. This act is a regularly practised sunnah by the Prophet. Hence, the pilgrim and the non-pilgrim can practise this sunnah. This is evidenced in the ayah: فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ the meaning of which is: « Perform the `Id Prayer and offer a sacrifice seeking reward from Allâh. »
Eid prayer can be performed in congregation, or individually any time between sunrise and noon. The best time of the Eid prayer is after the sun has reached the height of a spear (approximately 20 minutes from sunrise).
Al-BayHaqiyy reported according to Ibnu `Abbas that he said: the prophet was born the year of the elephant. One must believe he was born in Makkah and sent as a Messenger therein; he immigrated to al-Madinah and was buried therein ; and he was truthful in everything he told about and conveyed from Allâh.
There are two types of innovations mentioned in this Hadîth: the innovations of guidance and the innovations of misguidance. What complies with the Qur’ân, the Sunnah, the Ijma` (scholarly consensus), and the sayings and practices of the Companions is an innovation of guidance, and what contradicts the Qur’ân, the Sunnah, the Ijma`, and the sayings and actions of the Companions is an innovation of misguidance.
Also note that it is obligatory upon individuals who fulfil certain conditions to pay Zakah of Fitr. Zakah of fitr is an obligation on every Muslim who is alive at the end of Ramadan and the beginning of Shawwâl. In other terms if someone is alive when the sun sets on the last day of Ramaḍān, that is until after the sun sets, then the zakah of fitr is due on this person.
The Prophet is reported to have said which means: « Whoever fasts the month of RamaDân, and then follows it up by (fasting) six days of Shawwal, it is as though he has fasted the whole year. » (narrated by Imam Muslim)
Isrâ` and Mi`râj: this event is celebrated on the 27th of Rajab as per the Islamic calendar. It commemorates the miraculous night journey of Prophet Muḥammad Sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam from the city of Makkah to Jerusalem and then through the seven skies to paradise and beyond.
The Prophet said: « إذا كانت ليلةُ النصفِ من شعبانَ فقوموا ليلَها وصُوموا نهارها » which means: « Spend the night preceding the 15th day of Sha`bân in acts of obedience, and fast the next day. » The night of the middle-Shaban is a blessed night.